Research Supported by NSF/AIR Research and Dissertation Grant Awards

Last Updated: ​August 29, 2017

AIR is grateful to the National Science Foundation, National Center for Education Statistics, and National Postsecondary Education Cooperative for their support of AIR’s grant program. The research below was funded in part by AIR Research and Dissertation Grants:

Arbona, C., & Nora, A. (2007). The influence of academic and environmental factors on Hispanic college degree attainment. Review of Higher Education, 30, 247-269.

Bahr, P. R. (2008). Cooling out in the community college: What is the effect of academic advising on students’ chances of success? Research in Higher Education, 49, 704-732.

Bahr, P. R. (2010). Revisiting the efficacy of postsecondary remediation: The moderating effects of depth/breadth of deficiency. Review of Higher Education, 33, 177-205.

Banta, T.W., Griffin, M., Flateby, T.L., & Kahn, S. (2009, December). Three Promising Alternatives for Assessing College Students' Knowledge and Skills. (Occasional Paper No.2). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois and Indiana University, National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment. Retrieved from
Bastedo, M.N. & Jaquette, O. (2011). Running in place: Low-income students and the dynamics of higher education stratification. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 33, 318-339.
Bills, D. B. (2005). Participation in work-related education: Variations in skill enhancement among workers, employers, and occupational closure. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 23, 67-102.
Bills, D. B., & Wacker, M. E. (2003). Acquiring credentials when signals don’t matter: Employer support of employees who pursue vocational degrees. Sociology of Education, 76, 170-187.
Cabrera, A.F., Burkum, K.R., & LaNasa, S.M, & Bibo, E.W. (2012). Pathways to a four-year degree: Determinants of degree completion among socioeconomically disadvantaged students. In A. Seidman (Ed.), College student retention: Formula for student success (2nd ed., pp.167-210). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Cabrera, A. F. & La Nasa, S. M. (2000). Understanding the college choice process. New Directions for Institutional Research, 2000, 5-22.
Cabrera, A. F. & La Nasa, S. M. (2001). On the path to college: Three critical tasks facing America’s disadvantaged. Research in Higher Education, 42, 119-150.
Calcagno, J. C., Crosta, P., Bailey, T., & Jenkins, D. (2007). Does age of entrance affect community college completion probabilities? Evidence from a discrete-time hazard model. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 29, 218-235.
Calcagno, J. C., Crosta, P., Bailey, T., & Jenkins, D. (2007). Stepping stones to a degree: The impact of enrollment pathways and milestones on community college student outcomes. Research in Higher Education, 48, 775-801.
Cambridge, D., Fernandez, L., Kahn, S., Kirkpatrick, J., & Smith, J. (2008). The impact of the Open Source Portfolio on learning and assessment. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 4, 490-502.
Chambers, C. (2009). Discretionary time choices and College search: Extracurricular participation as a simple indicator of the propensity of young Black men towards post-secondary education. In H. T. Frierson, J. H. Wyche, & W. Pearson, Jr. (Eds.), Black American males in higher education: Research, programs, and academe (pp. 37-55). Bingley, UK: Emerald Publishing Group.
Chen, J. & Hossler, D. (2017). The effects of financial aid on college success of two-year beginning nontraditional students. Research in Higher Education, 58, 40-76.
Chen, R. & DesJardins, S. L. (2008). Exploring the effects of financial aid on the gap in student dropout risks by income level. Research in Higher Education, 49, 1-18.
Chen, R. & DesJardins, S. L. (2010). Investigating the impact of financial aid on student dropout risks: Racial and ethnic differences. Journal of Higher Education, 81, 179-208.
Chen, R. (2012). Institutional characteristics and college student dropout risks: A multilevel event history analysis. Research in Higher Education, 53, 487-505.
Chen, R. (2008). Financial aid and student dropouts in higher education: A heterogeneous research approach. In J. C. Smart (Ed.), Higher education: Handbook of theory and research (Vol. 23, pp. 209-240). The Netherlands: Springer.
Cofer, J., & Somers, P. (2001). Performance funding: Promise or curse? Journal of Student Financial Aid, 31, 19-34.
Cofer, J., & Somers, P. (1999). An analytical approach to understanding student debtload response. Journal of Student Financial Aid, 29, 25-44.
Cofer, J., & Somers, P. (2000). A comparison of the influence of debtload on the persistence of students at public and private colleges. Journal of Student Financial Aid, 30, 39-58.
Cofer, J., & Somers, P. (2000). Within-year persistence of students at two-year colleges. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 24, 785-807.
Cofer, J., & Somers, P. (2001). What influences student persistence at two-year colleges? A multi-year comparison. Community College Review, 29, 56-76.
Cole, J. S., Bergin, D. A., & Whittaker, T. A. (2008). Predicting student achievement for low stakes tests with effort and task value. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33, 609-624.
Crisp, G., Reyes, N. A. S., & Doran, E. (2017). Predicting successful mathematics remediation among Latina/o students. The Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 16, 232-255.
Crosta, P., Leinbach, T., & Jenkins, D. (2006). Using census data to classify community college students by socioeconomic status and community characteristics. (CCRC Research Tools No. 1). New York, NY: Community College Research Center, Teachers College, Columbia University. Retrieved from
Delaney, J. A., & Kearney, T. D. (2016). Alternative student-based revenue streams for higher education institutions: A difference-in-difference analysis using guaranteed tuition policies. Journal of Higher Education, 87, 80-99. 
Cruce, T. M., & Hillman, N. W. (2012). Preparing for the silver tsunami: The demand for higher education among older adults. Research in Higher Education, 53, 593-613.
DesJardins, S. L., Ahlburg, D. A., & McCall, B. P. (2002). A temporal investigation of factors related to timely degree completion. Journal of Higher Education, 73, 555-581.
DesJardins, S. L., Ahlburg, D. A., & McCall, B. P. (2002). Simulating the longitudinal effects of changes in financial aid on student departure from college. Journal of Human Resources, 37, 653-679.
DesJardins, S. L., Ahlburg, D. A., & McCall, B. P. (2006). The effects of interrupted enrollment on graduation from college: Racial, income, and ability differences. Economics of Education Review, 25, 575-590.
Dowd A. C. (2004). Income and financial aid effects on persistence and degree attainment in public colleges. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 12, 1-32.
Dowd, A. C. & Coury, T. (2006). The effect of loans on the persistence and attainment of community college students. Research in Higher Education, 47, 33-62.
Eagan, M. K. & Jaeger, A. J. (2009). Part-time faculty at community colleges: Implications for student persistence and transfer. Research in Higher Education, 50, 168-188.
Gaertner, M. (2012). Consider whether class based admissions should replace a race-based system. Enrollment Management, 15(11), 4-5.
Gaertner, M. & Hart, M. (2013). Considering class: College access and diversity. Harvard Law & Policy Review, 7, 367-403.
Gafford Muhammad, C. (2008). African American students and college choice: A CRT perspective on the Hossler-Gallagher model. NASSP Bulletin, 92, 81-94.
Giani, M. (2015). The postsecondary resource trinity model: Exploring the interaction between socioeconomic, academic, and institutional resources.  Research in Higher Education, 56, 105-126.
Giani, M. (2016). Are all colleges equally equalizing? How institutional selectivity impacts socioeconomic disparities in graduates' labor outcomes.  Review of Higher Education, 39, 431-461.
Gururaj, S., Vasquez Heilig, J., & Somers, P. (2010). Graduate student persistence: Evidence from three decades. Journal of Student Financial Aid, 40, 31-46.
Hamilton, S., & Kahn, S. (2009). Demonstrating Intellectual Growth and Development: The IUPUI ePort. In D. Cambridge, B. Cambridge, & K. B. Yancey (Eds.), Electronic portfolios 2.0: Emergent research on implementation and impact (pp. 91-96). Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.
Heller, D. E. (2004). The changing nature of financial aid. Academe, 90, 36-38.
Heller, D. E., & Marin, P. (Eds.). (2004). State merit scholarship programs and racial inequality. Cambridge, MA: The Civil Rights Project at Harvard University. Retrieved from
Heller, D. E. (2003). Aid matters: Merit aid is the wrong tool to attract the best and the brightest. Connection: The Journal of the New England Board of Higher Education, 18(1), 24-25.
Heller, D. E. (2002). Is merit-based student aid really trumping need-based aid? Another view. Change, 34(4), 6-7.
Heller, D. E. (2001). Race, gender, and institutional financial aid awards. Journal of Student Financial Aid, 31, 7-24.
Heller, D. E., & Nelson Laird, T. F. (1999). Institutional need-based and non-need grants: Trends and differences among college and university sectors. Journal of Student Financial Aid, 29, 7-24.
Hillman, N. (2014). College on credit: A multilevel analysis of student loan default. The Review of Higher Education, 37, 169-195.
Hillman, N. (2015). Borrowing and repaying student loans. Journal of Student Financial Aid, 45, 35-48.
Hornak, A. M., Farrell, P., & Jackson, N. (2010). Making it (or not) on a dime in college: Implications for practice. Journal of College Student Development, 51, 481-495.
Howell, J. S.; Kurlaender, M.; Grodsky, E. (2001). Postsecondary preparation and remediation: Examining the effect of the early assessment program at California State University. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 29, 726-748.
Jaeger, A. J. & Eagan, M. K. (2009). Unintended consequences: Examining the effect of contingent faculty on degree completion. Community College Review, 36, 167-194.
Jaeger, A. J. & Eagan, M. K. (2011). Examining retention and contingent faculty use in a state system of public higher education. Educational Policy, 25, 507-537.
Jaeger, A. J., & Hinz, D. (2008). The effects of part-time faculty on first-year freshman retention: A predictive model using logistic regression. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice, 10, 265-286.
Johnson, K. R., & Kahn, S. (2013). What are you going to do with that major?  An eportfolio as bridge from university to the world. In R. Rice & K.V. Wills (Eds.), ePortfolio performance support systems: Constructing, presenting, and assessing portfolios in public workplaces (pp. 89-108). West Lafayette, IN:  Parlor Press & WAC Clearinghouse.
Kanno, Y., & Cromley, J. (2013). English language learners’ access to and attainment in postsecondary education. TESOL Quarterly, 47, 89-121.
Kienzl, G., Alfonso, M., & Melguizo, T. (2007). The effect of local labor market conditions in the 1990s on the likelihood of a community college students’ persistence and attainment. Research in Higher Education, 48, 751-774.
Kim, D. & Otts, C. (2010). The effect of loans on time to doctorate degree: Differences by race/ethnicity, field of study, and institutional characteristics. The Journal of Higher Education, 81, 1-32.
Kim, J. (2012). Exploring the relationship between state financial aid policy and postsecondary enrollment choices: A focus on income and race differences. Research in Higher Education, 53, 123–151.
Kortesoja, S. L. (2009). Postsecondary choices of nontraditional-age students: Non-credit courses or a credential program? The Review of Higher Education, 33, 37-65.
Lee, S. M., Daniels, M. H., Puig, A., Newgent, R. A., & Nam, S. (2008). A data-based model to predict post-secondary educational attainment of low- socioeconomic-status students. Professional School Counseling, 11, 306-316.
Losh. S.C. (2004). Gender, educational and occupational digital gaps: 1983-2002. Social Science Computer Review, 22, 152-166.
Losh, S.C. (2004). Science. In J. Geer (Ed.), Public opinion and polling around the world: A historical encyclopedia (pp. 317-326). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, Inc.
Losh, S.C. (2004). Pseudoscience Beliefs. In J. Geer (Ed.), Public opinion and polling around the world: A historical encyclopedia (pp. 299-310). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, Inc.
Losh, S.C. (2010). Stereotypes about scientists over time among U.S. adults: 1983 and 2001. Public Understanding of Science, 19, 372-382.
Losh, S.C. (2010). Generation, education, gender and ethnicity in American digital divides. In E. Ferro, Y. K. Dwivedi, J. R. Gil-Garcia, & M. D. Williams (Eds.), Handbook of research on overcoming digital divides: Constructing an equitable and competitive information society (pp. 196-222). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
Losh, S.C. (2012). American public understanding of science: 1979-2006. In M. W. Bauer, R. Shukla, & N. Allum (Eds.), The culture of science: How does the public relate to science across the globe (pp. 55-75). New York, NY: Routledge.
Lozano, F. (2008). Language, high school leadership and the postsecondary outcomes of Hispanic students. Economics of Education Review, 27, 342-353.
McKinney, L. & Burridge, A. B. (2015). Helping or hindering? The effects of loans on community college student persistence. Research in Higher Education, 56, 299-324.
Ma, Y. & Liu, Y. (2015). Race and STEM degree attainment. Sociology Compass, 9, 609-618.
Mamiseishvili, K., & Rosser, V. J. (2010). International and citizen faculty in the United States: An examination of their productivity at research universities. Research in Higher Education, 51, 88-107.
Mamiseishvili, K., & Rosser, V. J. (2011). Examining the relationship between faculty productivity and job satisfaction. Journal of the Professoriate, 5, 100-132.
Marti, C. N. (2008). Latent postsecondary persistence pathways: Educational pathways in American two-year colleges. Journal of Research in Higher Education, 49, 317–336.
Mason, M. A., Wolfinger, N. H., & Goulden, M. (2013). Do babies matter? Gender and family in the Ivory Tower. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Mau, W.C., Ellsworth, R., Hawley, D. (2008). Job satisfaction and career persistence of beginning teachers. International Journal of Educational Management, 22, 48-61.
Milam, J. (1999). Using the national datasets for faculty studies. AIR Professional File, 70, 3-21.
Muhammad, C. G. (2009). Gender differences in African American college enrollment: The role of extracurricular participation. The National Journal of Urban Education and Practice, 2, 123-134.
Nuñez, A.-M., & Kim, D. (2012). Building a multicontextual model of Latino college enrollment: Student, school, and state-level effects. Review of Higher Education, 35, 237-263.
Newton, X., Torres, D., & Rivero, R. (2011). Making the connection: Timing of taking algebra and future college STEM participation. Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, 17, 129-146.
O'Toole, D., Stratton, L. S., & Wetzel, J. N. (2003). A longitudinal analysis of the frequency of part-time enrollment and the persistence of students who enroll part-time. Research in Higher Education, 44, 519-537.
Owen-Smith, J., Roccaboni, M., Pammolli, F., & Powell, W. W. (2002). A comparison of U.S. and European university-industry relations in the life sciences. Management Science, 48, 24-43.
Palardy, G. L. (2015). High school socioeconomic composition and college choice: Multilevel mediation via organizational habitus, school practices, peer and staff attitudes. School Effectiveness and School Improvement: An International Journal of Research, Policy and Practice, 26, 329-353. doi: 10.1080/09243453.2014.965182
Person, A. E., and Rosenbaum, J. E. (2006). Educational outcomes of labor-market linking and job placement for students at public and private two-year colleges. Economics of Education Review, 25, 412-419.
Perna, L.W. (2003). The status of women and minorities among community college faculty. Research in Higher Education, 44, 205-240.
Posselt, J. R., Jaquette, O., Bielby, R., & and Bastedo, M. N. (2012). Access without equity: Longitudinal analyses of institutional stratification by race and ethnicity, 1972–2004. American Educational Research Journal, 49, 1074-1111.
Powell, P. & Owen-Smith, J. (2004). Knowledge networks as channels and conduits: The effects of spillovers in the Boston biotechnology community. Organization Science, 15, 5-21.
Powell, P. & Owen-Smith, J. (2003). The expanding role of university patenting in the life sciences: Assessing the importance of experience and connectivity. Research Policy, 32, 1695-1711.
Powell, P. & Owen-Smith, J. (2002). The new world of knowledge production in the life sciences. In S. Brint (Ed.), The future of the city of intellect: The changing American university (pp. 107-130). Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
Prince, D. & Jenkins, D. (2005). Building pathways to success for low-skill adult students: Lessons for community college policy and practice from a longitudinal student tracking study. New York, NY: Community College Research Center, Teachers College, Columbia University. Retrieved from
Prokos, A. H., & Padavic, I. (2005). Explaining the sex pay gap for women in science and engineering fields. Gender & Society, 19, 523-543.
Prokos, A. H., Padavic, I., & Schmidt, A. S. (2009). Nonstandard work arrangements among women and men scientists and engineers. Sex Roles, 61, 653-666.
Reynolds, J., & Burge, S. (2008). Educational expectations and the rise in women’s post-secondary attainments. Social Science Research, 37, 485-499.
Reynolds, J., & Pemberton, P. (2001). Rising college expectations among youth in the United States: A comparison of 15 and 16 year olds in the 1979 and 1997 NLSY. Journal of Human Resources, 36, 703-726.
Roksa, J. (2006). Does vocational focus of community colleges hinder students’ educational attainment? Review of Higher Education, 29, 499-526.
Roksa, J. (2008). Structuring access to higher education: The role of differentiation and privatization. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 26, 57-75.
Rosser, V. J. (2005). Measuring the change in faculty perceptions over time: An examination of their worklife and satisfaction. Research in Higher Education, 46, 81-107.
Ryan, S. (2012). Education is a social process: Repairing the P-16 pipeline for Hispanic youth one relationship at a time [White paper]. UTA KEPLR Center White Paper Series. Retrieved from
Seifert, T., Wells, R., Saunders, D. & Gopaul, B. (2012). When “college for all” results in students’ unrealized expectations: Analysis for K-16 policy and practice [White paper]. UTA KEPLR Center White Paper Series. Retrieved from
Somers, P., Bauer, J., Haines, K., Keene, B., Pfeiffer, M., McCluskey, J., Settle, J., & Sparks, B. (2006). Towards a theory of choice for community college students. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 30, 53-67.
Somers, P., Cofer, J., & Vander Putten, J. (2001). The early bird goes to college: The link between early college aspirations and postsecondary matriculation. Journal of College Student Development, 43, 93-97.
Somers, P., Woodhouse, S., & Cofer, J. (2004). Pushing the boulder up the hill: The persistence of first-generation college students. NASPA Journal, 41, 418-435.
Speroni, C. (2011). High school dual enrollment programs: Are we fast-tracking students too fast? New York, NY: National Center for Postsecondary Research, Teachers College, Columbia University. Retrieved from
Stewart, A. C. & Zheng, H. Y. (2005). The impact of intangible resources: How organization reputation and employee know-how affect performance. In R. A. Bettis (Ed.), Strategy in Transition (pp. 252-273). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
Stokes, T., & Somers, P. (2010). Who enrolls in two-year colleges? A national study. Journal of Student Financial Aid, 39, 4-18.
Stratton, L. S., O'Toole, D. M., & Wezel, J. N. (2005). Comparing first term and first year college attrition. Virginia Economic Journal, 10, 29-44.
Stratton, L. S., O'Toole, D. M., & Wezel, J. N. (2007). Are the factors affecting dropout behavior related to initial enrollment intensity for college undergraduates? Research in Higher Education, 48, 453-486.
Stratton, L. S., O'Toloe, D. M., & Wezel, J. N. (2008). A multinomial logit model of college attrition that distinguishes between stopout and dropout behavior. Economics of Education Review, 27, 319-331.
Stratton, L. S., O'Toole, D., & Wetzel, J. N. (2004). Factors affecting initial enrollment intensity: Part-time versus full-time enrollment. Economics of Education Review, 23, 167-175.
Stratton, L.S. & Wetzel, J. N. (2013). Are students dropping out or simply dragging out the college experience: persistence at the six-year mark. The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, 13, 1121-1142.
Toutkoushian, R., Bellas, M., & Moore, J. (2007). The interaction effects of gender, race, and marital status on faculty salaries. The Journal of Higher Education, 78, 572-601.
Umbach, P. D. (2007). Gender equity in the academic, labor market: An analysis of academic disciplines. Research in Higher Education, 48, 169-192.
Wang, X. (2013). Modeling entrance into STEM fields of study among students beginning at community colleges and four-year institutions. Research in Higher Education, 54, 664-692.
Wang, X. (2012). Factors contributing to the upward transfer of baccalaureate aspirants beginning at community colleges. Journal of Higher Education, 83, 851-875.
Wang, X. (2012). Academic performance of community college transfers: Psychological, socio-demographic, and educational correlates. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 36, 872-883.
Wang, X. (2013). Why students choose STEM majors: Motivation, high school learning, and postsecondary context of support. American Educational Research Journal, 50, 1081-1121.
Wang, X. (2009). Baccalaureate attainment and college persistence of community college transfer students at four-year institutions. Research in Higher Education, 50, 570-588.
Wang, X. (2016). Course-taking patterns of community college students beginning in STEM: Using data mining techniques to reveal viable STEM transfer pathways. Research in Higher Education, 57, 544-569.
Webber, K. L. (2013). Cultivating the future of graduate education: Factors contributing to salary for recent doctorate degree recipients. Planning for Higher Education, 41(4), 1-11.
Wells, R. (2010). Children of immigrants and educational expectations: The roles of school composition. Teachers College Record, 112, 1679-1704.
Wells, R., Seifert, T. & Saunders, D. (2013). Gender and realized educational expectations: The roles of social origins and significant others. Research in Higher Education, 54, 599-626.
Whittington, K. B. (2011). Mothers of invention?: Gender, motherhood, and new dimensions of productivity in the science profession. Work and Occupations, 38, 417-456.
Xu, D. & Jaggars, S. S. (2013). The impact of online learning on students’ course outcomes: Evidence from a large community and technical college system. Economics of Education Review, 37, 46-57.
Xu, Y.  J. (2014). Advance to and persistence in graduate school: Identifying the influential factors and major-based differences. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice, 16, 391-417.
Xu, Y.  (2012). Career outcomes of STEM and non-STEM college graduates:  Persistence in majored-field and influential factors in career choices. Research in Higher Education, 54, 349-382.
Xu, Y. (2015). Focusing on women in STEM: A longitudinal examination of gender-based earning gap of college graduates. Research in Higher Education, 86, 489-523.
Zheng, H. Y. & Stewart A. C. (2002). Assessing the performance of public research universities using NSF/NCES data and data envelopment analysis technique. AIR Professional File, 83, 1-23.